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商用厨房设计规范  >>   见解  |  
     商用厨房,在做厨房设计时,非常重视厨房的功能,面积一般厨房占餐饮面积的30%左右.
酒店厨房的设计通风和空调考虑:
1、厨灶的排烟
2、厨房的通风,不能使厨师感到热
3、厨房的气味不能进入餐厅
4、需要和厨具的设备供货商确定
    厨房的用途及流程设计,在餐馆、酒店及宾馆的餐饮部门中极为重要。一个理想的设计方案,不但可以让厨师与相关部门人员密切配合,井然有序,而且为制作美味佳肴提供了良好舒心的环境。顾客也因此能得到更好的服务,并不断提高顾客回头率。反之,一个粗制滥造的设计,可能由于设备、器具安排不合理,造成厨师使用时不顺手,无法挥洒其烹饪技术而影响出品质量,时间长后必然影响到餐馆或酒店的声誉。
    因此,在进行厨房设计时,整个厨房设备的布局要根据现场情况和餐厅的功能、要求进行合理安排和设计,并结合煤气公司、卫生防疫、环保、消防等部门的要求进行厨房设备的方案调整,同时充分考虑到将来施工、安装和验收的实际情况。在设计厨房布局方案时,应严格遵守以下原则:了解客户厨房的既定菜式,设计均以此为中心;严格按格生熟食品分隔的原则,确保厨房饮食卫生。在此前提下,尽量缩短输送流程,使路向分明;厨房空间及工作位置合理安排,确保厨师均能各司其职,分工合作,提高产量与质量;厨具、用具布局拥有合理空间,使视野开阔,方便管理;对不合理的原有装置,尽量加以改造或利用,以合乎经济原则;厨房内抽气系统,以保持空气流通及无闷热感为基本目标,务求使厨房有一个舒适的工作环境;厨具符合消防、卫生、环保条例,以确保安全及避免损毁。在选择设计公司时,应了解其是否在承接酒店宾馆、员工食堂以及会所、商业写字楼等厨房工程方面具有丰富经验,是否在方案设计以及供水、供电、通风等配套方案设计方面具有成熟的整套流程。躇世纪的厨房经营暂学应是:勤俭、创新、追求最佳服务;而成为一名成功的厨师长,必须具备丰富的工作经验、人事管理经验、公关技巧、市场学知识、财务知识及非凡的创造力。只有做到这些,厨房的管理才能有条不紊,酒店的事业才能蒸蒸日上。
    厨房的设计应以流程合理,方便实用,节省劳动,改善厨师工作环境为原则,不必追求设备多多益善。厨房设备多而没用,不仅造成投资增大,而且占用场地空间,使厨房生产操作施展不开,增加不安全性,更没有必要一味追求气派漂亮,造型花哨。
  
    现在饭店里有几种情况:一是新建或改造厨房时,片面追求设计效果图整齐、买设备看样品光重外表,结果买回的设备板太薄、质太轻,工作台一用就晃,炉灶一烧就臌,冰箱一不小心就升温。还有些设备看似新颖,功能超前,而真正的实用价值不高,如好多国产的运水烟罩、升降传菜梯等等。往往是施工人员撤出,饭店筹建人员退场,接手的厨师叫苦不迭,厨师成了设备的奴隶。二是不论自家饭店卖什么风味的产品,其设备都选配广式炉灶,认为只有这样的配备,厨房才是先进的。须知广式炉灶是与粤菜的烹调方法、成品特色相配套的。广灶的总体特点是火力猛、易调节、好控制,最适合于旺火速成的粤菜烹制。可现在有许多经营淮扬菜、海派菜或者杭州菜的菜馆,仍选配广灶着实为难了不少厨师。殊不知,淮扬菜擅长炖、焖、煨、海派菜浓油赤酱,讲究靠功,这都需要炉灶有支火眼配合猛火使用等等。不考虑这些因素,不仅成品风味、质地难以地道,而且对燃料、厨师劳动力的浪费也是惊人的。情况之三,只要是提到改善厨师的工作环境,厨房要做到先进整齐,就无节制地扩大面积,拓展空间。不仅如此,还把偌大的一个厨房进行无限分隔,各作业间互相封闭,看不见,叫不应,既增加了厨师搬运货物的距离,又不便互相关照,提高工作效率,更容易产生安全隐患。
    因此,厨房的设计应紧紧围绕餐饮的经营风格,充分考虑实用、耐用和便利的原则,具体地讲,应在以下几个方面特别加以重视:  
    厨房的通风。不管厨房选配先进的运水烟罩,甚至直接采用简捷的排风扇,最重要的是要使厨房,尤其是配菜、烹调区形成负压。所谓负压,即排出去的空气量要大于补充进入厨房的新风量。这样厨房才能保持空气清新。但在抽排厨房主要油烟的同时,也不可忽视烤箱、焗炉、蒸箱、蒸汽锅以及蒸汽消毒柜、洗碗机等产生的浊气、废气,要保证所有烟气都不在厨房区域弥漫和滞留。
     厨房的明厨、明档。餐馆设计明厨、明档,是餐饮业发展到一定时期的产物。设计明厨、明档,至少要注意不应因此设计而增加餐厅的油烟、噪声和有碍观瞻场景。有些只宜将生产的最后阶段作展示性的明厨设计,实在没有必要和盘托出。  
厨房地面。厨房的地面设计和选材,切不可盲从,必须审慎定夺。在没有选择到新颖实用的防滑地砖前,使用红钢砖仍不失为有效之举。 
厨房的用水和明沟。有许多厨房在设计水槽(水池)时,由于配备的太少、太小,使得厨师要跑很远才能找见水池,于是忙起来干脆就很难顾及清洗,厨房的卫生很难令人信服务。厨房的明沟,是厨房污水排放的重要通道。可有些厨房明沟太浅,或太毛糙,或无高低落差,或无有机连接,使得厨房或水地相连,或臭气熏人,厨房很难做到干爽、清净。因此,在进行厨房设计时要充分考虑原料化冻、冲洗,厨师取用清水和清洁用水的各种需要,尽可能在合适位置使用的单槽或双槽水池,切实保证食品生产环境的整洁卫生。
厨房的灯光。餐厅的灯光重文化,厨房的灯光重实用。这里的实用,主要指临炉炒菜要有足够的灯光以把握菜肴色泽;案板切配要有明亮的灯光,以有效防止刀伤和追求精细的刀工;出菜打荷的上方要有充足的灯光,切实减少杂草混入并流入餐厅等等。厨房灯光不一定要像餐厅一样豪华典雅、布局整齐,但其作用绝不可忽视。
 
    辅助设计是强化完善餐饮功能的必要补充。辅助设计,主要指的是在餐饮功能的划分上,既不算直接服务于客人用餐、消费的餐厅、也不属于菜点生产制作的厨房。但少了这些设计,餐厅可能会显得粗俗不雅,甚至噪杂零乱;厨房生产和出品也会变得断断续续,甚至残缺不全。这些辅助设计主要有备餐间和洗碗间等。  
    备餐间是配备开餐用品,创造顺利开餐条件的场所。传统的餐饮管理大多对此设计和设备配备没有引起足够的重视。因此,也出现了许多餐厅弥漫污烟浊气,出菜服务丢三落四的现象。备餐间设计要注意以下几个方面:
1.备餐间应处于餐厅、厨房过渡地带。以便于夹、放传菜夹,便于通知划单员,要方便起菜、停菜等信息沟通。 
2.厨房与餐厅之间采用双门双道。厨房与餐厅之间真正起隔油烟、隔噪声、隔温度作用的是两道门的设置。同向两道门的重叠设置不仅起到"三隔"的作用,还遮挡了客人直接透视厨房的视线,有效解决了若干饭店陈设屏风的问题。 
3 备餐间要有足够空间和设备
洗碗间的设计与配备,在餐饮经营中,可有效减少餐具破损,保证餐具洗涤及卫生质量,在设计时应处理好以下几方面的问题:  
1.洗碗间应靠近餐厅、厨房,并力求与餐厅在同一平面。洗碗间的位置,以紧靠餐厅和厨房,方便传递脏的餐具和厨房用具为佳。洗碗间与餐厅保持在同一平面,主要是为了减轻传送餐具员工的劳动强度。当然在大型餐饮活动之后,用餐车推送餐具,这也是前提条件。  
2.洗碗间应有可靠的消毒设施。洗碗间不仅仅承担清洗餐具、厨房用具的责任,同时负责所有洗涤餐具的消毒工作。而靠手工洗涤餐具的洗碗间,则必须在洗涤之后,根据本饭店的能源及场地条件等具体情况,配置专门的消毒设施。消毒这后,再将餐具用洁布擦干,以供餐厅、厨房使用。


 Commercial kitchen, in the design of the kitchen, the kitchen is very importance to the function, the general area of the kitchen dining area of about 30%.
Hotel kitchen ventilation and air conditioning design considerations:
1, kitchen stove smoke
2, the kitchen ventilation, can not make the cook feel hot
3, the smell of the kitchen can not enter the restaurant
4, needs and equipment suppliers to determine the kitchen utensils
The use of the kitchen and process design, in restaurants, hotels and restaurants in the hotel sector is very important. An ideal design scheme, not only can let the chef and the relevant departments cooperate closely, in order, but also provide a good environment for making delicious comfort. Customers can also get a better service, and constantly improve the customer back. On the other hand, a crudely made design, may be due to equipment arrangement is unreasonable, cause cook do not use easily, not artificial cooking technology and the influence of product quality, after a long time will affect the reputation of the hotel or restaurant.
Therefore, in the kitchen design, the kitchen equipment layout to arrange and design according to the situation and the functions of the restaurant, demand, adjustment scheme of kitchen equipment combined with the gas company, health and epidemic prevention, environmental protection and fire department requirements, and fully take into account the actual situation of the construction, installation and acceptance of the future. In the design of the kitchen layout, should strictly abide by the following principles: to understand customer kitchen dishes established, designed as a center; in strict accordance with the price of cooked food separate principle, to ensure food hygiene kitchen. Under this premise, as far as possible to shorten the delivery process, make clear direction; the reasonable arrangement of the kitchen space and work position, ensure that the chef can carry out their duties, division of labor, improve yield and quality; kitchen utensils, appliances have a reasonable space layout, the vision, and convenient management; the original device is not reasonable, as far as possible to improve or use, in accordance with the economy principle; kitchen pumping system, in order to keep the air circulation and mugginess as the basic goal, in order to make a comfortable working environment for the kitchen utensils; comply with fire safety, health, environmental protection regulations, to ensure the safety and avoid damage. In the selection of the design company, should understand whether to undertake hotels, clubs, office staff canteen and kitchen floor engineering etc. with rich experience, whether in terms of design, water supply, power supply, ventilation and other mature set of flow scheme. Moment century kitchen operation temporarily learning should be: diligence, innovation, the pursuit of the best service; and became a successful chef, must have abundant working experience, experience in personnel management and public relations skills, market knowledge, financial knowledge and creativity. Only to do this, the management of the kitchen in order to be orderly, the hotel's business to success.
The kitchen should be designed to process is reasonable, convenient and practical, save labor, improve the working environment for the cook principle, not the pursuit of The more, the better. equipment. Kitchen equipment is not used, not only caused investment increases, and occupy space, so that the kitchen production operation is not open, increase insecurity, it is not necessary to pursue a beautiful style, fancy style.
There are several restaurants: one is the new or modified kitchen, one-sided pursuit of design renderings look neat, buy equipment sample light heavy equipment in appearance, results buy too thin, too light, with a shaking table, a stove burning on the floor, the refrigerator accidentally warming. Some devices look new, advanced and practical function, the real value is not high, a lot of domestic such as hydrovent, lifting dish ladder etc.. Is often the construction personnel from the hotel construction, personnel exit, take over cook complain incessantly, chefs have become slaves of equipment. Two is no matter what their own restaurant to sell the flavor of the product, its equipment is equipped with a wide range of stoves, that only such a device, the kitchen is advanced. It is characteristic of wide type stove and finished cooking method, Guangdong matching. The general characteristics of wide range is of strong firepower, easy adjustment, good control, the most suitable for the Cantonese cooking stir crash. But now there are many business Huaiyang, Shanghai dish or Hangzhou cuisine restaurant, still wide range selection difficult many cooks. As everyone knows, Huaiyang good stew, stew, simmer, Shanghai dish thick red oil sauce, pay attention on work, it needs to have a fire with fire stove etc.. Do not consider these factors, not only the flavor, texture is difficult to tunnel, and the waste of fuel, cook the labor force is also amazing. Case of three, as long as it is mentioned to improve the working environment of the cook, the kitchen should be advanced and tidy, the uncontrolled expansion of the area, expanding space. Not only that, but also put a huge kitchen for unlimited space, each operation closed to each other, see, is not, can not only increase the cook goods handling distance and inconvenient to take care of each other, improve work efficiency, more prone to security risks.
Therefore, the design of the kitchen should be closely around the restaurant business style, fully consider the practical, durable and convenient principle, in particular, should be paid special attention in the following aspects:
Kitchen ventilation. No matter the kitchen matching advanced hydrovent, even directly by the exhaust fan is simple, the most important thing is to make the kitchen, especially vegetables, cooking area to form negative pressure. The so-called negative pressure, that is, the amount of air discharged into the kitchen to be greater than the amount of fresh air into the kitchen. So the kitchen can keep the air fresh. But in the main kitchen fume exhaust can not be ignored at the same time, oven, oven, steamer, steam pot

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